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Unit 1 > Glossary

GLOSSARY

A pressure group is a group of people with specific aims and interests. Also known as interest groups, lobby groups or protest groups, they try to influence political decision makers such as MPs and councillors to influence local or national policy and/or legislation. The work of pressure groups includes research, lobbying, providing expertise and public awareness.

Socially Deprived areas are characterised by individuals being on a low Income, dependence on   benefits and tax credits.  It is quite often an area of high unemployment , with a high numbers of lone parents, disabled or elderly individuals. The individuals also may suffer from  poverty, social exclusion or social injustice, low  educational attainment and premature mortality.   Housing may  be poor being damp, draughty, ill kept and be poorly heated.  The geographic area  can be rural with reduced access to services and transport.    Individuals in deprived areas may experience lack of material needs, social relationships, social activities and access to basic services.  They may have inadequate heating, an unbalanced diet and do not go on holiday.  Individuals often feel unsafe in their community in deprived areas.  

“People in deprived areas are at least twice as likely to experience poverty as people in Britain as a whole." ERSC Society today"
(http://www.esrc.ac.uk)

social exclusion – lack of  personal relationships and involvement in social activities in the community

social injustice – those individuals who are the poorest have a shorter life expectancy than those individuals in affluent areas.  Governments are encouraged to narrow the gap so that all individuals in society have an equal chance of survival.  .  Social injustice cutting life expectancy, UN report says  ‘ A  boy in the suburb of Calton, Glasgow, can expect to live 28 years less than one brought up in Lenzie, a few miles away. One born in Hampstead, London, will live around 11 years longer than a boy from St Pancreas, five stops down the underground Northern  line’  (http://www.guardian.co.uk)

Incidence the detection of certain disease or disorders e.g. cancer( morbidity) – the existence of cancer, the diagnosis of cancer .  If the incidence is recorded it means it has been detected and diagnosed.  The governments wants to be able  to detect the cancer and then prevent it from spreading which would cause death. The aim is to be able to have a lower mortality than incidence, that is to have greater detection and prevention to lower the number of deaths caused by cancer.  Hence , the screening programmes for breast cancer and cervical cancer.  HPV vaccination programme.

Mortality death by certain circumstances e .g. death by cancer, heart disease,

Despondency - despondent, despairing, forlorn, hopeless - being without or almost without hope, feeling  dejected or depressed

Malignant growth – Uncontrolled growth of cancer cells.

Carcinogens – A trigger that encourages uncontrolled growth of cancer cells

Poverty -  Barnardo’s believe that families living in poverty are living on about £10 per day to pay for essential needs such as food, heating, toys, clothes, electricity and transport

Poor housing – is housing that is overcrowded, temporary, run down, damp  or dangerous

Drug addiction -  is when an individual becomes dependant on a drug, and it forms a central part of their life.

Palmar grasp – using the whole hand

Tripod grasp – using the thumb and two fingers

Pincer grasp – using thimb and first finger